1. Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.
2. And now will I show thee the truth, Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.
Note.-- The vision was given in the third year of Cyrus (chap. 10:1). The three kings that followed were Cambyses, Smerdis, and Darius Hystaspes; and the fourth, "far richer than they all," was Xerxes, who did "stir up all against the realm of Grecia." But his campaign and others that followed only served to give Grecia the idea of conquering Persia, which she did under Alexander.
3. And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.
4. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.
Note.-- In the intrigues and conflicts following Alexander's sudden death, at the age of thirty-three years, all his posterity soon perished. At last his empire resolved itself into four main divisions, as the prophecy had foretold. The chief of these erelong became the northern (Asia Minor and the regions of the Euphrates), under Seleucus; and the southern (Egypt), under Ptolemy Soter. These two strong kingdoms fought and schemed for generations.
5. And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.
Note.-- The Encyclopedia Britannica says: "The dynasty of Seleucus justified the 'prophecy' of Daniel [11:5]."
6. And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.
NOTE: The wars between the kings of Egypt and Syria were at length attempted to cease when Antiochus Theos (Syria) agreed to put away his former wife, Laodice, and her two sons, to marry Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus (Egypt). She was brought with an immense dowry but did not retain the power, because the former wife was brought back to court. Fulfilling prophecy, Laodice caused Antiochus, Bernice, her Egyptian women and attendants, and her son to be killed.
7. But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:
Note.-- The Encyclopedia Britannica: "In the vain hope of protecting (or avenging) his sister Berenice, the new king of Egypt...invaded the Seleucid territory, 'entered the fortress of the king of the north.'"
8. And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.
9. So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.
NOTE: Ptolemy Euergetes was Berenice's brother, who in conquest took back land and images and survived Seleucus Callinicus, who died in exile.
10. But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.
NOTE: Seleucus Callinicus (king of the north) had two sons: Seleucus Ceraunus and Antiochus Magnus. The first attempted in battle with a great multitude; but Antiochus overcame Nicolas, the Egyptian general.
11. And the king of the South shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.
NOTE: Ptolemy Philopater, king of Egypt, angry at the losses and the prospect of another impending invasion raised a numerous army and overcame an army of 62,000, 6,000 horses, and 102 elephants.
12. And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.
NOTE: Ptolemy became proud and angered by the resistance of the Jews to let him sacrifice in their Most Holy Place; he killed 40-60,000 Jews in Alexandria. He lost the respect of his country and the Egyptians rebelled.
13. For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.
Note.-- For the fulfillment of all these details of history, see the Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, art. "Palestine."
14. And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.
NOTE: As Antiochus, king of Syria, and Philip, king of Macedonia prepared to come to battle against the new king of Egypt, Ptolemy Epiphanes, a child of four or five years old, the Romans were raised up against them and they, Antiochus and Philip, came to the end of their time of power. "A new power is now introduced,- "the robbers of thy people;" literally, says Bishop Newton, "the breakers of thy people. Henceforth the name of Rome stands upon the historic page, destined for long ages to control the affairs of the world, and exert a mighty influence among the nations even to the end of time." Daniel and the Revelation p. 256.
15. So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.
16. But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.
Note.-- It was Rome that Despoiled the Jewish state. One title given the Roman power in the East was that of "robbers of the world." Egypt came in conflict with the Roman power, but succumbed. Rome's forces subdued the "glorious land," or Palestine.
NOTE. Syria was conquered, and added to the Roman empire, when Pompey, B.C. 65 reduced Syria to a Roman province. The Jews had been connected to Rome, by alliance, since B.C. 161; but came under jurisdiction in B.C. 63.
17. He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.
NOTE: Ceasar set about to rule in Egypt between Ptolemy and Cleopatra. The Jews allowed arms to come to his help aiding Ceasar's victory. Cleopatra was joined to Ceasar, but afterward joined herself to Antony, the enemy of Augustus Ceasar.
18. After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.
19. Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
NOTE: Julius Ceasar returned to Rome to receive honor and then death at the hand of conspirators, B.C. 44.
20. Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
NOTE: The St. Louis Globe Democrat, as quoted in Current Literature for July, 1895, says: "Augustus Caesar was not the public benefactor he is represented. He was the most exacting tax collector the Roman world had up to that time ever seen." This is the Caesar who raised taxes in Luke 2:1.
21. And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honor of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.
NOTE: Tiberius Caesar had a legacy of perpetual drunkenness, flatteries, hypocrisy, and murders.
22. And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the Prince of the covenant.
Note.-- In the reign of Tiberius, Jesus, the Prince of the covenant, was crucified.
23. And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.
24. He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strongholds, even for a time.
25. And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.
26. Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.
27. And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.
28. Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.
29. At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.
NOTE: Rome came to quell the insurrection of Jerusalem. The former time was when Cestius Gallus, in October A.D.66 came south to surround Jerusalem, then suddenly gave up, turned around, and headed back toward the coast. The Jewish rebels followed and massacred nearly 6,000 of his men. The next general to attempt the job was Titus Flavius Vespasianus (Vespasian), who in A.D.67-68 with 60,000 men overtook all but the city itself. He captured Joseph ben Mattathias, the well-known historian Flavius Josephus, who saved his own life by predicting that Vespasian would succeed Nero as emperor. July 68, Nero did die and Vespasian sent his son Titus to finish the conquest of Jerusalem, A.D.70.
30. For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.
31. And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice (sacrifice not in original), and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.
NOTE: Any Christians still living in Jerusalem in A.D.68 recognized the prophecy of Jesus regarding the abomination of desolation (Matt. 24:15) and they left the city. The Romans persecuted any Sabbath-keepers, Jews and Christians alike. This prophecy should also be regarded as a prophecy to be fulfilled in the very end of time. To the question, "when shall these things be (the destruction of Jerusalem), and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?" Jesus said, "he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved, ...when ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation ...flee." The remainder of this chapter is also an end-time prophecy. The historical fulfilment is a type for the final fulfilment.
NOTE: For the interpretation of the "Daily" and "the abomination that maketh desolate" see chapter 8.
32. And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.
33. And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.
34. Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.
35. And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.
Note.-- The ending of this prophetic period of 1,260 years marked the beginning, then, of "the time of the end." A new era began with those days of the French Revolution that saw the papal power given a deadly blow, the final stroke (as seen in notes on Dan. 7:25) smiting the papal throne in 1798 and sending the Pope into captivity. And as the French Revolution was the agency, how natural that the past fulfillment of prophecy should next depict the outburst of atheism in the France of that time. History will repeat itself.
36. And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
37. Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
38. But in his estate shall he honor the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
39. Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
40. And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.
NOTE: The king of the north in these prophecies refers to the power that in located in the area of the region occupied by the north after Alexander's kingdom eventually split into the ruling power of the north and the south. See verses after Dan. 11:4. Rome was this power. Satan was and is the ruler of the kingdoms of this world.
41. He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.
42. He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
43. But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.
44. But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.
NOTE: The news that troubles him is the knowledge that Jesus is on His way to end the reign of terror. "I have raised up one from the north, and he shall come: from the rising of the sun shall he call upon my name: and he shall come upon princes as upon mortar, and as the potter treadeth clay." Isaiah 41:25. "For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be." Matthew 24:27. Satan wished to take God's place in the "sides of the north" but he was cast down to the earth. See Isaiah 14:12-16.
45. And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
Note.-- The king of the north, the power ruling in this region of Asia Minor, (Rome was and is in this region) is yet to come to his end, and none shall help him. And when he does come to his end -- then what? Then will come the great Armageddon of the nations, the coming of the Lord, and the end of the world, as the next chapter shows. The real "King of the North" in heaven will finally destroy the usurping "king of the north" -Satan and all his followers.